Coronavirus

Scaling Up Staffing Roles in Case Investigation and Contact Tracing

Surveillance Triage and Support Processes incoming laboratory and provider reports in surveillance system. Follows-up to obtain relevant medical and demographic information. Acts as a resource for interjurisdictional communication & transfer of patient and contact information. Responsible for gathering relevant locating information (e.g., “people-searches”) for clients and contacts. Surveillance Data Clerks, Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS)*** Administrative…

Surveillance Triage and Support Processes incoming laboratory and provider reports in surveillance system. Follows-up to obtain relevant medical and demographic information. Acts as a resource for interjurisdictional communication & transfer of patient and contact information. Responsible for gathering relevant locating information (e.g., “people-searches”) for clients and contacts. Surveillance Data Clerks, Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS)*** Administrative Support Staff, Data Entry Technicians Case Investigator Conducts interviews of patients with confirmed or probable COVID-19, with a focus on motivational interviewing and cultural competency. Interviews should be guided by standard protocols and include: providing disease-specific information; assessing signs and symptoms, and underlying health conditions; discussing symptom onset to determine window period for contact elicitation and exposure risk for close contacts; discussing work, social, recreational, and community activities to identify who may have been exposed; eliciting information on close contacts, including names, exposure dates and locating information; and assessing support needs to maintain health and compliance during self-isolation.

Facilitates testing and referral to healthcare services and resource care coordination, as indicated. May conduct home-based specimen collection.

Provides recommendations for self-isolation and review of daily monitoring procedures.  Conducts daily monitoring during self-isolation—temperature, signs/symptoms, use of fever-reducing medications—via electronic tool (e.g., smartphone app, case management software) or other designated mechanism until patient is no longer infectious.**

Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS)***, Public Health Associate Program (PHAP) Assignees, Public Health Nurses, Epidemiologists Public Health Graduates or Current Students (MPH and Bachelors), Retired Registered Nurses, Health Educators, Social Workers, Medical or Nursing Students, Patient Navigators, Community Health Outreach Workers/Promotores, Community Members with emotional intelligence, good communication and problem-solving skills.
Ideally, they have language skills or similar cultural/social background as clients. Contact Tracer

Communicates with contacts to notify them of exposure, provides disease and transmission information, gathers data on demographics, living arrangements, and daily activities. Asks about signs/symptoms and underlying medical conditions. Provides referrals for testing (if appropriate). May conduct home-based specimen collection.

Provides recommendations for self-quarantine and reviews daily monitoring procedures. Assesses supports necessary to maintain compliance during self-quarantine. Conversations with contacts should be guided by standard protocols.

Conducts daily monitoring during self-quarantine—temperature, signs/symptoms, use of fever-reducing medications—via electronic tool (e.g., smartphone, case management software) or other designated mechanism, until 14 days after last potential exposure, and referral to healthcare if contact becomes symptomatic.**

Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS)***, Public Health Investigators, Public Health Associate Program (PHAP) Assignees, Public Health Nurses, Epidemiologists Community Health Outreach Workers/Promotores, Medical Assistants, Teachers, Librarians, College Students, Customer Service- Oriented Professionals such as Flight Attendants, Call Center Employees, Restaurant and Other Service Industry Employees Case Investigation & Contact Tracing Lead Directly oversees the work of the Case Investigator and/or Contact Tracer and others who may work as part of a team. Assigns work and oversees the quality of work. Ensures completion of case interviews and contact follow-up according to established standards. Reviews work for missing information, inconsistencies, or areas that need further exploration and directs staff follow-up to seek clarification and obtain additional information. Addresses complex issues with cases or contacts that have been escalated by staff.

Uses qualitative (interview audits) and quantitative (review of statistical outputs) methods to review performance and determine areas for formal or informal professional development, training, coaching, and mentoring. When necessary, uses progressive discipline to address performance or conduct issues. Recognizes staff for exceptional and outstanding performance.  Maintains employee personnel files.

Supervisory Public Health Nurses, Senior Epidemiologist Supervisory Public Health Nurses, STD Program Front Line Supervisors, Public Health Investigator Supervisors, Communicable Disease Investigator Supervisors, TB Case Investigators/Outreach Worker Supervisors Care Resource Manager Assesses social support that clients and contacts need to maintain healthy living in self-isolation or self-quarantine. Identifies housing needs and facilitates transition to appropriate housing supports. Provides tools (e.g., thermometer) to assist with daily monitoring and prevent further spread in home. Coordinates other support services such as delivery of food or medications, and referral to programs that provide financial assistance. Patient Navigators, Linkage to Care Specialists, Disease Intervention Specialists Social Workers, Medical Assistants, Community Health Outreach Workers/Promotores, Medical Case Managers, Medical Care Coordinators Self-Isolation & Self-Quarantine Monitor Daily monitoring (ideally) of clients with COVID-19 during self-isolation and contacts during self-quarantine—temperature, signs/symptoms—via electronic tool (e.g., smartphone app, case management software) or other designated mechanism. Assesses changes (initiation or increase in severity) in COVID-19 signs and symptoms. Facilitates prompt medical attention, as necessary. Tracks when clients or contacts are eligible to discontinue self-isolation/self-quarantine and refers them to testing when available to assess their readiness for discontinuation.** Community Health Outreach Workers Certified Medical Assistants, Health Educators, Patient Navigators, Community Members with emotional intelligence, good communication and problem-solving skills, language skills High-Risk Medical Monitor Interactive daily monitoring of clients with COVID-19 during self-isolation and contacts during self-quarantine who are at higher risk for severe disease. Assesses changes (initiation or increase in severity) in signs and symptoms. Facilitates prompt medical attention, as necessary. Tracks when clients or contacts are eligible to discontinue self-isolation or self-quarantine. Public Health Nurses Nurse Practitioners, Physician Assistants, Registered Nurses, Licensed Vocational Nurses Infection Control Personnel Conducts investigation of congregate living facilities (e.g., skilled nursing facilities, hospitals, acute care settings, long-term care facilities, group homes, homeless shelters, prisons, jails) and workplaces that have a patient (either resident/patient or staff member) with COVID-19 to assess potential exposure of other staff and residents/patients at the site and recommend infection control procedures. Infection Control Practitioners (Nurses or Physicians), Hospital Acquired Infection Practitioners (Nurses or Physicians), Hospital Epidemiologists, Occupational Health Liaisons, Field Epidemiologists Public Health Nurses, Registered Nurses, Physicians Data Manager Manages digital infrastructure for surveillance and contact investigation. Abstracts data from surveillance system for import into appropriate contact investigation platform and visa-versa, when automated data synchronization is not available. Assesses and improves data quality and interoperability of data systems. Supports the development and modification of data systems to appropriately capture, integrate and report multiple data streams necessary to monitor response progress and outcomes. Epidemiologists, Data Managers, Public Health Informatics Specialists Software Developers, Systems Engineers, Data Engineers, Data Integration Specialists Epidemiologist Analyzes data on cases and contact outcomes in order to identify outbreaks and priority populations. Monitors and evaluates the response in order to shift program efforts appropriately. Epidemiologists, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers (EISOs), Career Epidemiology Field Officers (CEFOs), Statisticians, Research Scientists, Data Scientists Epidemiologists, Statisticians, Research Scientists, Data Scientists, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers (EISOs), Epidemiology and Statistics Graduate Students, and other fellows Clinical Consultant Provides clinical support to the case investigation team, provides consultation for complex cases, and collaborates with healthcare providers, hospitals, and other facilities regarding clinical recommendations. Practicing Registered Nurses, Public Health Nurses, Nurse Practitioners, Physician Assistants, Physicians Practicing and Retired Registered Nurses, Public Health Nurses, Nurse Practitioners, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Medical Epidemiologists Servers of Public Health Orders**** Serves public health orders for isolation (clients with COVID-19) or quarantine (contacts) as necessary for people who are noncompliant with public health recommendations to self-isolate or self-quarantine—either in-person or electronically.** Public Health Investigators or other public health personnel with delegated authority Public Health Personnel and other staff with delegated authority

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